Stock photography image - Muslims climbing a square shaped stairway

Probably it is a mosque where a lot of Muslims are gathering to say their prayer.

 

 

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Stock photography image - Fisherman fishing with local pull net in a pond Stock photography image - Green small bird sitting on thorny coral tree Stock photography image - Buddhist temple (All-Seeing Eyes... ) in Nepal Stock photography image - Inner side of Buddhist temple (All-Seeing Eyes... ) in Nepal Stock photography image - celebrating Durga puja on  Bijya doshomi at  potenga see beach, chittagong, BANGLADESH Stock photography image - Mosque of Dhaka New market Stock photography image - Stock photography image - A Journey by train, Stock photography image - Crowd exploration at Shahbag Projonmo chottok, Dhaka Bangldesh Stock photography image - A mass crowd protesting at Shahbag Square,[Projonmo chottor]against a verdict given my international war crime tribunal against Abdul Kader Molllah, Stock photography image - Protest against the verdict given my tribunal at dhaka

Muslims climbing a square shaped stairway

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Image ID: 10833
License type: Royalty-Free (RF)
Contributor: Wasik Edaaf
Model released: No
Property released: No
Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,
Categories: Architecture And Buildings, People, Religious
Location: Bangladesh
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Stock photography image - Fisherman fishing with local pull net in a pond Fisherman fishing with local pull net in a pond
Bangladesh is a country with hundreds of rivers and ponds and is notable for being a fish-loving nation, acquiring the name "Machh-e Bhat-e Bangali" which means, "Bengali by fish and rice". So fishing is a common profession in Bangladesh.
Categories: Lifestyle, Nature, People
Keywords: area, Bangladeshi, common, fish-loving, fisherman, Fishing, local, Machh-e Bhat-e Bangali, Nation, Net, People, Pond, poor, profession, pull, rural, village
Location: Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $5.
Photographer: © Wasik Edaaf
Stock photography image - Green small bird sitting on thorny coral tree Green small bird sitting on thorny coral tree
The bird is unknown to me but it is a very good looking bird. There are some bunches of red coral flowers around it.
Categories: Animals And Pets, Nature
Keywords: Bangladeshi, Bird, common, coral, flowers, green, red, singer, Sitting, small, thorny, tree
Location: Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $5.
Photographer: © Wasik Edaaf
Stock photography image - Buddhist temple (All-Seeing Eyes… ) in Nepal Buddhist temple (All-Seeing Eyes... ) in Nepal
The all-seeing eyes of Buddha, with prayer flags in the foreground, in Bouddha. Each flutter of the flag is believed to send a prayer up to the heavens. Boudhanath (also called Boudha, Bouddhanath or Baudhanath or the Khāsa Caitya) is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in Kathmandu (Yambu), Nepal. It is known as Khāsti in Nepal Bhasa Jyarung Khasyor in Tamang language or as Bauddha by modern speakers of Nepali. Located about 11 km (6.8 mi) from the center and northeastern outskirts of Kathmandu, the stupa's massive mandala makes it one of the largest spherical stupas in Nepal.
Categories: Architecture And Buildings, Holidays And Events, Religious
Keywords: All-Seeing, Bauddha, Buddhist, eyes, Flags, holiest, Kathmandu, Prayer, spherical, stupa, Temple
Location: Kathmandu, Nepal
Price (Small XS): $5.
Photographer: © Wasik Edaaf
Stock photography image - Inner side of Buddhist temple (All-Seeing Eyes… ) in Nepal Inner side of Buddhist temple (All-Seeing Eyes... ) in Nepal
There is a big bell inside of temple. The all-seeing eyes of Buddha, with prayer flags in the foreground, in Bouddha. Each flutter of the flag is believed to send a prayer up to the heavens. Boudhanath (also called Boudha, Bouddhanath or Baudhanath or the Khāsa Caitya) is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in Kathmandu (Yambu), Nepal. It is known as Khāsti in Nepal Bhasa Jyarung Khasyor in Tamang language or as Bauddha by modern speakers of Nepali.
Categories: Architecture And Buildings, Religious
Keywords: All-Seeing, Bauddha, big bell, Buddhist, eyes, Flags, holiest, inner, Kathmandu, Prayer, side, spherical, stupa, Temple
Location: Kathmandu, Nepal
Price (Small XS): $5.
Photographer: © Wasik Edaaf
Stock photography image - celebrating Durga puja on  Bijya doshomi at  potenga see beach, chittagong, BANGLADESH celebrating Durga puja on Bijya doshomi at potenga see beach, chittagong, BANGLADESH
People gathered here at Potanga sea beach to celebrate bijoya Doshomi . Durga Puja is a religious and cultural festival which is mostly celebrated in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. This article describes its celebration in Bangladesh. Durga Puja is the biggest religious festival for Hindu community in India and Bangladesh which is similar to Christmas. In 2011, they celebrated Durga Puja in almost 28,000 permanent and non permanent temples called Puja Mondop (in Bengali and Hindi, Mandapa). The number of Mondop is increasing day by day. In 2011, the number increased by about 1000 over the previous year. The largest number of Puja Mondops is usually in the city and in town area. Due to small Hindu communities in villages, very few puja is celebrated in rural areas.
Categories: Holidays And Events, Landscapes, Lifestyle, Objects, People, Religious
Keywords: Beach, Bijya dshomi, Crowd, durgapuja, event in bangladesh, Events, Hindu religious festival, People, Religious, religious faith, sea
Location: potenga sea beach , chittagong
Price (Small XS): $150.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
Stock photography image - Mosque of Dhaka New market Mosque of Dhaka New market
The construction of the market started in 1952 by CBD during the period of Nurul Amin, the Chief Minister of East Pakistan. Construction was completed in 1954. This heralded the beginning of a new area of development towards modernizing Dhaka. Rickshaw ride or walking along the narrow lanes of old Dhaka for shopping was not a happy experience for families. Old Dhaka was too conservative, noisy and crowded. Ironically, Mr. Nurul Amin’s modernization project boomeranged as people talked against it. Some believed New Market and Shahbagh Hotel were made exclusively for Nurul Amin’s family. Mosques were built outside the Arabian Peninsula as Muslims moved to other parts of the world. Egypt became occupied by Muslim Arabs as early as 640, and since then so many mosques have appeared throughout the country that its capital city, Cairo, has acquired the nickname of city of a thousand minarets.[4] Egyptian mosques vary in amenities, as some have Islamic schools (madrasahs) while others have hospitals or tombs.[5] Built soon after the conquest of northwest Africa, the first mosque built in this region is the Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia) founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi during the second half of the 7th century and considered as the oldest place of worship in the western Islamic world.[6][7] The Great Mosque of Kairouan, which is one of the most significant and best preserved examples of early Islamic mosques,[7] served due to its architectural characteristics as a model to many later mosques especially in north Africa and Al-Andalus.[6] Mosques in Sicily and Spain do not primarily reflect the architecture of Visigothic predecessors, but instead reflect the architecture introduced by the Muslim Moors.[8] It is hypothesized, however, that there were some elements of pre-Islamic architecture which were Islamicized into Andalusi and Maghribi architecture, for example, the distinctive horseshoe arch.[9]
Categories: Architecture And Buildings, Religious
Keywords: buliding, Dhaka, Islam, Mosque, muslin, New market, Prayer, Religious
Location: New market , dhaka Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $35.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
Stock photography image - “Whoever will seek my refuge, will always receive my grace.” "Whoever will seek my refuge, will always receive my grace.”
Long time later, Baba Lokenath finished his meditations, and went to eastern part of India, and settled at a small town village called Barodi,near Dhaka in Bangladesh and lived at Dangu Kormokar’s house. Dangu Kormokar was a poor family, and then after Baba Lokenath lived with them, the family changed and become rich. When Baba Lokenath was new to the village, he was taunted by the villagers. When the villagers found out Baba Lokenath’s superiority, they become Baba Lokenath’s devotees. From this on, Baba Lokenath’s name went all over India. On the 19th day of Jyestha, 1297(June 1, 1890 C.E. at 11:45AM, at age 160, Baba Lokenath took his Mahasamadhi. As self-realized master, he proclaims to the world, “I am eternal, I am deathless. After this body falls, do not think that everything will come to an end. I will live in the hearts of all living beings in my subtle astral form. Whoever will seek my refuge, will always receive my grace.”
Categories: Backgrounds And Textures, Business, Feelings And Emotions, Landscapes, Lifestyle, Objects, People, Religious, Travel
Keywords: 11-16Mm Tokina, 8, barodi, birds eye view, C_7D_74631, CANON 7D, Crowd, f 2, faith, green, Hinduism, Loknath. Rakher upobash, passion, People, Red building, religious faith, school. ashram, top view, trees
Location: Barodi ,Narayangonj, dhaka, Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $25.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
Stock photography image - A Journey by train, A Journey by train,
Bangladesh Railway provides various types of services ranging from shuttle service for university students to freight and cargo service. But still BR could not make profit as it is providing services to the nation at a subsidized rate in order to help the country's economy and for the ease of people. Bangladesh Railway is one of the principal modes of transportation in the country. During 2004-2005, about 42 million passengers were transported by Bangladesh Railway.[11] Bangladesh Railway introduced Intercity Train services in 1985. At present there are 54 Intercity Trains running. Around 38.5% of the total passengers of Bangladesh Railway are being carried by the Intercity trains which contribute approximately 73.3% of the total earnings of passenger traffic
Categories: Backgrounds And Textures, Lifestyle, Objects, People, Transportation, Travel
Keywords: 70-200Mm f2.8L IS II usm, Bangladesh railway, Blue, C_7D_72940, CANON 7D, colorful .many people, Crowd, eid leave, green, Journey by train, line, movment, Passenger, People, roof-top, subsidized, Ticket, top view, track, Train, Travelling, trees, vacation
Location: dhaka Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $70.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
Stock photography image - Crowd exploration at Shahbag Projonmo chottok, Dhaka Bangldesh Crowd exploration at Shahbag Projonmo chottok, Dhaka Bangldesh
Projonmo chottor shahbag square are the new name of Shahbag, dhaka ,Bangladesh, People gathered here on 9th Feb 2013 for the demand of Death sentence to Kader Mollah , a war criminal of Bangladesh, who joined in a mass killing with the then Pakistan army during the liberation war of Bangladesh In 1971,Present Government of Bangladesh was promised bound t face those war criminal under justices, and the verdict given on 05 feb against Abdul Kader Mollah was a life time imprisonment , and the Mass people of Bangladesh did not accept this verdict, and an on line activist group and bloggers got together in this shahabag square on 06th feb to protest against this verdict, War crimes trial attempts As early as December 22, 1971, the Indian Army was conducting investigations of senior Pakistani Army officers connected to the massacre of intellectuals in Dhaka, with the aim of collecting sufficient evidence to have them tried as war criminals. They produced a list of officers who were in positions of command at the time, or were connected to the Inter-Services Screening Committee.[75] On December 24, 1971 Home minister of Bangladesh A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman said, "war criminals will not survive from the hands of law. Pakistani military personnel who were involved with killing and raping have to face tribunal." In a joint statement after a meeting between Sheikh Mujib and Indira Gandhi, the Indian government assured that it would give all necessary assistance for bringing war criminals into justice. In February 1972, the government of Bangladesh announced plans to put 100 senior Pakistani officers and officials on trial for crimes of genocide. The list included General A. K. Niazi and four other generals.[76] After the war, the Indian Army held 92,000 Pakistani prisoners of war,[77] and 195 of those were suspected of committing war crimes. All 195 of them were released in April 1974 following the tripartite Simla agreement between Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, and repatriated to Pakistan, in return for Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh.[78] Furthermore, there was no obligation on Pakistan to carry out investigations of allegations against the suspects, or to provide reparation to Bangladesh. On July 30, 2009, the Minister of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of Bangladesh stated that no Pakistanis would be tried under the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973.[79] This decision has drawn criticism by international jurists, as it effectively gives immunity to the army commanders of the Pakistan Army who are generally considered to be ultimately responsible for the majority of crimes of 1971.[79] The Bangladesh Collaborators (Special Tribunals) Order 1972 was promulgated to bring to trial those Bangladeshis who collaborated with and aided the Pakistan Armed forces during the Liberation War of 1971.[80] There are conflicting accounts of the number of persons brought to trial under the 1972 Collaborators Order, ranging between 10,000 and 40,000.[81] At the time, the trials were considered problematic by local and external observers, as they appear to have been used for carrying out political vendettas. R. MacLennan, a British MP who was an observer at the trials stated that 'In the dock, the defendants are scarcely more pitiable than the succession of confused prosecution witnesses driven (by the 88-year old defence counsel) to admit that they, too, served the Pakistan government but are now ready to swear blind that their real loyalty was to the government of Bangladesh in exile.'[82] The government of Bangladesh issued a general amnesty on November 30, 1973, applying to all persons except those who were punished or accused of rape, murder, attempt of murder or arson.[81] The Collaborators Order 1972 was revoked in 1975. The International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973 was promulgated to prosecute any persons, irrespective of nationality, accused of committing crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, war crimes, ‘‘violations of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid out in the Geneva Conventions of 1949’’ and ‘‘any other crimes under international law’’.[83] Detainees held under the 1972 Collaborators order who were not released by the general amnesty of 1973 were going to be tried under this Act. However, no trials were actually held, and all activities related to the Act ceased after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975. There are no known instances of criminal investigations or trials outside of Bangladesh of alleged perpetrators of war crimes during the 1971 war. Initial steps were taken by the Metropolitan Police to investigate individuals resident in the United Kingdom who were alleged to have committed war crimes in a Channel 4 documentary film aired in 1995. To date, no charges have been brought against these individuals.[84] On December 29, 1991 Ghulam Azam, who was accused of being a collaborator with Pakistan during 1971, became the Chairman or Ameer of the political party Jamaat-e-Islami of Bangladesh, which caused controversy. This prompted the creation of a 'National Committee for Resisting the Killers and Collaborators of 1971', after a proposal of writer and political activist Jahanara Imam. A mock people's court was formed which on March 26, 1992, found Ghulam Azam guilty in a mock trial and sentenced him to death. A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on September 20, 2006 for alleged crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. Raymond Solaiman & Associates acting for the plaintiff Mr. Solaiman, have released a press statement which among other things says:[85] “ We are glad to announce that a case has been filed in the Federal Magistrate's Court of Australia today under the Genocide Conventions Act 1949 and War Crimes Act. This is the first time in history that someone is attending a court proceeding in relation to the [alleged] crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. The Proceeding number is SYG 2672 of 2006. On October 25, 2006, a direction hearing will take place in the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia, Sydney registry before Federal Magistrate His Honor Nicholls. ” On May 21, 2007, at the request of the applicant "Leave is granted to the applicant to discontinue his application filed on September 20, 2006." (FILE NO: (P)SYG2672/2006)[86] In March 2010, the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) was formed in Bangladesh to hold trials of Bangladeshi citizens accused of involvement in crimes against humanity, including genocide, rape, murder and arson during the 1971 Liberation war. The ICT, despite its name, is of local nature and has had no involvement from the United Nations. It has been criticised by the Human Rights Watch [87] and prominent Western jurists for bias and deficient legal provisions.[88] Charge such as planning to commit crime, murder and torture have been framed against eight members, including former leader Ghulam Azam, of Jamaat-e-Islami party. Three of these have been indicted. The members have termed the charges as political.[89]
Categories: Abstract And Concept, Objects, People
Keywords:
Location: Shahbag , dhaka, Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $250.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
Stock photography image - A mass crowd protesting at Shahbag Square,[Projonmo chottor]against a verdict given my international war crime tribunal against Abdul Kader Molllah, A mass crowd protesting at Shahbag Square,[Projonmo chottor]against a verdict given my international war crime tribunal against Abdul Kader Molllah,
Projonmo chottor shahbag square are the new name of Shahbag, dhaka ,Bangladesh, People gathered here on 9th Feb 2013 for the demand of Death sentence to Kader Mollah , a war criminal of Bangladesh, who joined in a mass killing with the then Pakistan army during the liberation war of Bangladesh In 1971,Present Government of Bangladesh was promised bound t face those war criminal under justices, and the verdict given on 05 feb against Abdul Kader Mollah was a life time imprisonment , and the Mass people of Bangladesh did not accept this verdict, and an on line activist group and bloggers got together in this shahabag square on 06th feb to protest against this verdict, War crimes trial attempts As early as December 22, 1971, the Indian Army was conducting investigations of senior Pakistani Army officers connected to the massacre of intellectuals in Dhaka, with the aim of collecting sufficient evidence to have them tried as war criminals. They produced a list of officers who were in positions of command at the time, or were connected to the Inter-Services Screening Committee.[75] On December 24, 1971 Home minister of Bangladesh A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman said, "war criminals will not survive from the hands of law. Pakistani military personnel who were involved with killing and raping have to face tribunal." In a joint statement after a meeting between Sheikh Mujib and Indira Gandhi, the Indian government assured that it would give all necessary assistance for bringing war criminals into justice. In February 1972, the government of Bangladesh announced plans to put 100 senior Pakistani officers and officials on trial for crimes of genocide. The list included General A. K. Niazi and four other generals.[76] After the war, the Indian Army held 92,000 Pakistani prisoners of war,[77] and 195 of those were suspected of committing war crimes. All 195 of them were released in April 1974 following the tripartite Simla agreement between Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, and repatriated to Pakistan, in return for Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh.[78] Furthermore, there was no obligation on Pakistan to carry out investigations of allegations against the suspects, or to provide reparation to Bangladesh. On July 30, 2009, the Minister of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of Bangladesh stated that no Pakistanis would be tried under the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973 This decision has drawn criticism by international jurists, as it effectively gives immunity to the army commanders of the Pakistan Army who are generally considered to be ultimately responsible for the majority of crimes of 1971. The Bangladesh Collaborators (Special Tribunals) Order 1972 was promulgated to bring to trial those Bangladeshis who collaborated with and aided the Pakistan Armed forces during the Liberation War of 1971.[80] There are conflicting accounts of the number of persons brought to trial under the 1972 Collaborators Order, ranging between 10,000 and 40,000.[81] At the time, the trials were considered problematic by local and external observers, as they appear to have been used for carrying out political vendettas. R. MacLennan, a British MP who was an observer at the trials stated that 'In the dock, the defendants are scarcely more pitiable than the succession of confused prosecution witnesses driven (by the 88-year old defence counsel) to admit that they, too, served the Pakistan government but are now ready to swear blind that their real loyalty was to the government of Bangladesh in exile.'[82] The government of Bangladesh issued a general amnesty on November 30, 1973, applying to all persons except those who were punished or accused of rape, murder, attempt of murder or arson. The Collaborators Order 1972 was revoked in 1975. The International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973 was promulgated to prosecute any persons, irrespective of nationality, accused of committing crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, war crimes, ‘‘violations of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid out in the Geneva Conventions of 1949’’ and ‘‘any other crimes under international law’’.[83] Detainees held under the 1972 Collaborators order who were not released by the general amnesty of 1973 were going to be tried under this Act. However, no trials were actually held, and all activities related to the Act ceased after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975. There are no known instances of criminal investigations or trials outside of Bangladesh of alleged perpetrators of war crimes during the 1971 war. Initial steps were taken by the Metropolitan Police to investigate individuals resident in the United Kingdom who were alleged to have committed war crimes in a Channel 4 documentary film aired in 1995. To date, no charges have been brought against these individuals.[84] On December 29, 1991 Ghulam Azam, who was accused of being a collaborator with Pakistan during 1971, became the Chairman or Ameer of the political party Jamaat-e-Islami of Bangladesh, which caused controversy. This prompted the creation of a 'National Committee for Resisting the Killers and Collaborators of 1971', after a proposal of writer and political activist Jahanara Imam. A mock people's court was formed which on March 26, 1992, found Ghulam Azam guilty in a mock trial and sentenced him to death. A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on September 20, 2006 for alleged crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. Raymond Solaiman & Associates acting for the plaintiff Mr. Solaiman, have released a press statement which among other things says:[85] “ We are glad to announce that a case has been filed in the Federal Magistrate's Court of Australia today under the Genocide Conventions Act 1949 and War Crimes Act. This is the first time in history that someone is attending a court proceeding in relation to the [alleged] crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. The Proceeding number is SYG 2672 of 2006. On October 25, 2006, a direction hearing will take place in the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia, Sydney registry before Federal Magistrate His Honor Nicholls. ” On May 21, 2007, at the request of the applicant "Leave is granted to the applicant to discontinue his application filed on September 20, 2006." (FILE NO: (P)SYG2672/2006)[86] In March 2010, the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) was formed in Bangladesh to hold trials of Bangladeshi citizens accused of involvement in crimes against humanity, including genocide, rape, murder and arson during the 1971 Liberation war. The ICT, despite its name, is of local nature and has had no involvement from the United Nations. It has been criticised by the Human Rights Watch [87] and prominent Western jurists for bias and deficient legal provisions.[88] Charge such as planning to commit crime, murder and torture have been framed against eight members, including former leader Ghulam Azam, of Jamaat-e-Islami party. Three of these have been indicted. The members have termed the charges as political.
Categories: Abstract And Concept, Backgrounds And Textures, Landscapes, Objects, People
Keywords:
Location: Shahbag, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $205.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
Stock photography image - Protest against the verdict given my tribunal at dhaka Protest against the verdict given my tribunal at dhaka
Projonmo chottor shahbag square are the new name of Shahbag, dhaka ,Bangladesh, People gathered here on 9th Feb 2013 for the demand of Death sentence to Kader Mollah , a war criminal of Bangladesh, who joined in a mass killing with the then Pakistan army during the liberation war of Bangladesh In 1971,Present Government of Bangladesh was promised bound t face those war criminal under justices, and the verdict given on 05 feb against Abdul Kader Mollah was a life time imprisonment , and the Mass people of Bangladesh did not accept this verdict, and an on line activist group and bloggers got together in this shahabag square on 06th feb to protest against this verdict, War crimes trial attempts As early as December 22, 1971, the Indian Army was conducting investigations of senior Pakistani Army officers connected to the massacre of intellectuals in Dhaka, with the aim of collecting sufficient evidence to have them tried as war criminals. They produced a list of officers who were in positions of command at the time, or were connected to the Inter-Services Screening Committee.[75] On December 24, 1971 Home minister of Bangladesh A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman said, "war criminals will not survive from the hands of law. Pakistani military personnel who were involved with killing and raping have to face tribunal." In a joint statement after a meeting between Sheikh Mujib and Indira Gandhi, the Indian government assured that it would give all necessary assistance for bringing war criminals into justice. In February 1972, the government of Bangladesh announced plans to put 100 senior Pakistani officers and officials on trial for crimes of genocide. The list included General A. K. Niazi and four other generals.[76] After the war, the Indian Army held 92,000 Pakistani prisoners of war,[77] and 195 of those were suspected of committing war crimes. All 195 of them were released in April 1974 following the tripartite Simla agreement between Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, and repatriated to Pakistan, in return for Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh.[78] Furthermore, there was no obligation on Pakistan to carry out investigations of allegations against the suspects, or to provide reparation to Bangladesh. On July 30, 2009, the Minister of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of Bangladesh stated that no Pakistanis would be tried under the International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973 This decision has drawn criticism by international jurists, as it effectively gives immunity to the army commanders of the Pakistan Army who are generally considered to be ultimately responsible for the majority of crimes of 1971. The Bangladesh Collaborators (Special Tribunals) Order 1972 was promulgated to bring to trial those Bangladeshis who collaborated with and aided the Pakistan Armed forces during the Liberation War of 1971.[80] There are conflicting accounts of the number of persons brought to trial under the 1972 Collaborators Order, ranging between 10,000 and 40,000.[81] At the time, the trials were considered problematic by local and external observers, as they appear to have been used for carrying out political vendettas. R. MacLennan, a British MP who was an observer at the trials stated that 'In the dock, the defendants are scarcely more pitiable than the succession of confused prosecution witnesses driven (by the 88-year old defence counsel) to admit that they, too, served the Pakistan government but are now ready to swear blind that their real loyalty was to the government of Bangladesh in exile.'[82] The government of Bangladesh issued a general amnesty on November 30, 1973, applying to all persons except those who were punished or accused of rape, murder, attempt of murder or arson. The Collaborators Order 1972 was revoked in 1975. The International Crimes (Tribunals) Act 1973 was promulgated to prosecute any persons, irrespective of nationality, accused of committing crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, war crimes, ‘‘violations of any humanitarian rules applicable in armed conflicts laid out in the Geneva Conventions of 1949’’ and ‘‘any other crimes under international law’’.[83] Detainees held under the 1972 Collaborators order who were not released by the general amnesty of 1973 were going to be tried under this Act. However, no trials were actually held, and all activities related to the Act ceased after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975. There are no known instances of criminal investigations or trials outside of Bangladesh of alleged perpetrators of war crimes during the 1971 war. Initial steps were taken by the Metropolitan Police to investigate individuals resident in the United Kingdom who were alleged to have committed war crimes in a Channel 4 documentary film aired in 1995. To date, no charges have been brought against these individuals.[84] On December 29, 1991 Ghulam Azam, who was accused of being a collaborator with Pakistan during 1971, became the Chairman or Ameer of the political party Jamaat-e-Islami of Bangladesh, which caused controversy. This prompted the creation of a 'National Committee for Resisting the Killers and Collaborators of 1971', after a proposal of writer and political activist Jahanara Imam. A mock people's court was formed which on March 26, 1992, found Ghulam Azam guilty in a mock trial and sentenced him to death. A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on September 20, 2006 for alleged crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. Raymond Solaiman & Associates acting for the plaintiff Mr. Solaiman, have released a press statement which among other things says:[85] “ We are glad to announce that a case has been filed in the Federal Magistrate's Court of Australia today under the Genocide Conventions Act 1949 and War Crimes Act. This is the first time in history that someone is attending a court proceeding in relation to the [alleged] crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. The Proceeding number is SYG 2672 of 2006. On October 25, 2006, a direction hearing will take place in the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia, Sydney registry before Federal Magistrate His Honor Nicholls. ” On May 21, 2007, at the request of the applicant "Leave is granted to the applicant to discontinue his application filed on September 20, 2006." (FILE NO: (P)SYG2672/2006)[86] In March 2010, the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) was formed in Bangladesh to hold trials of Bangladeshi citizens accused of involvement in crimes against humanity, including genocide, rape, murder and arson during the 1971 Liberation war. The ICT, despite its name, is of local nature and has had no involvement from the United Nations. It has been criticised by the Human Rights Watch [87] and prominent Western jurists for bias and deficient legal provisions.[88] Charge such as planning to commit crime, murder and torture have been framed against eight members, including former leader Ghulam Azam, of Jamaat-e-Islami party. Three of these have been indicted. The members have termed the charges as political.
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Keywords:
Location: Shahbag Square, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Price (Small XS): $95.
Photographer: © Hamim CHOWDHURY
 

 

 

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